Locale::Country - standard codes for country identification


use Locale::Country;

$country = code2country('jp' [,CODESET]);        # $country gets 'Japan'
$code    = country2code('Norway' [,CODESET]);    # $code gets 'no'

@codes   = all_country_codes( [CODESET]);
@names   = all_country_names();

# semi-private routines
Locale::Country::alias_code('uk' => 'gb');
Locale::Country::rename_country('gb' => 'Great Britain');


The Locale::Country module provides access to several code sets that can be used for identifying countries, such as those defined in ISO 3166-1.

Most of the routines take an optional additional argument which specifies the code set to use. If not specified, the default ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes will be used.


There are several different code sets you can use for identifying countries. The ones currently supported are:


This is the set of two-letter (lowercase) codes from ISO 3166-1, such as 'tv' for Tuvalu.

This code set is identified with the symbol LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_2.

This is the default code set.


This is the set of three-letter (lowercase) codes from ISO 3166-1, such as 'brb' for Barbados. These codes are actually defined and maintained by the U.N. Statistics division.

This code set is identified with the symbol LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_3.


This is the set of three-digit numeric codes from ISO 3166-1, such as 064 for Bhutan. These codes are actually defined and maintained by the U.N. Statistics division.

If a 2-digit code is entered, it is converted to 3 digits by prepending a 0.

This code set is identified with the symbol LOCALE_CODE_NUMERIC.


The FIPS 10 data are two-letter (uppercase) codes assigned by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.

This code set is identified with the symbol LOCALE_CODE_FIPS.


The IANA is responsible for assigning two-letter (uppercase) top-level domain names to each country.

This code set is identified with the symbol LOCALE_CODE_DOM.


code2country ( CODE [,CODESET] )
country2code ( NAME [,CODESET] )
country_code2code ( CODE ,CODESET ,CODESET2 )
all_country_codes ( [CODESET] )
all_country_names ( [CODESET] )
Locale::Country::rename_country ( CODE ,NEW_NAME [,CODESET] )
Locale::Country::add_country ( CODE ,NAME [,CODESET] )
Locale::Country::delete_country ( CODE [,CODESET] )
Locale::Country::add_country_alias ( NAME ,NEW_NAME )
Locale::Country::delete_country_alias ( NAME )
Locale::Country::rename_country_code ( CODE ,NEW_CODE [,CODESET] )
Locale::Country::add_country_code_alias ( CODE ,NEW_CODE [,CODESET] )
Locale::Country::delete_country_code_alias ( CODE [,CODESET] )

These routines are all documented in the Locale::Codes man page.

alias_code ( ALIAS, CODE [,CODESET] )

Version 2.07 included 2 functions for modifying the internal data: rename_country and alias_code. Both of these could be used only to modify the internal data for country codes.

As of 3.10, the internal data for all types of codes can be modified.

The alias_code function is preserved for backwards compatibility, but the following two are identical:

alias_code(ALIAS,CODE [,CODESET]);
rename_country_code(CODE,ALIAS [,CODESET]);

and the latter should be used for consistency.

The alias_code function is deprecated (though there is no currently no plan to remove it).

Note: this function was previously called _alias_code, but the leading underscore has been dropped. The old name was supported for all 2.X releases, but has been dropped as of 3.00.



The Locale-Codes distribution.


ISO codes for country sub-divisions (states, counties, provinces, etc), as defined in ISO 3166-2. This module is not part of the Locale-Codes distribution, but is available from CPAN in CPAN/modules/by-module/Locale/

Official home page for the ISO 3166 maintenance agency.

Unfortunately, they do not make the actual ISO available for free, so I cannot check the alpha-3 and numerical codes here.

The source of ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes used by this module.

The source of the official ISO 3166-1 three-letter codes and three-digit codes.

For some reason, this table is incomplete! Several countries are missing from it, and I cannot find them anywhere on the UN site. I get as much of the data from here as I can.

The official list of the FIPS 10 codes.

Official source of the top-level domain names.

Although not the official source of any of the data, the World Factbook maintained by the CIA is a great source of the data, especially since I can't get the official data from the ISO. Since it's maintained by the CIA, and since it's updated every two weeks, I use this as the source for some missing data.

Another unofficial source of data. Currently, it is not used to get data, but the notes and explanatory material were very useful for understanding discrepancies between the sources.


See Locale::Codes for full author history.

Currently maintained by Sullivan Beck (


Copyright (c) 1997-2001 Canon Research Centre Europe (CRE).
Copyright (c) 2001-2010 Neil Bowers
Copyright (c) 2010-2011 Sullivan Beck

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.